PB - Plant Biology


PB 103Perspectives on BotanyUNITS: 1 - Offered in Fall Only
Orientation to modern botany, including discussions of historical background, relation to other sciences, the nature of modern subdisciplines, professionalism and ethics, local resources of personnel and facilities, educational opportunities, and career possibilities.


PB 200Plant LifeUNITS: 4 - Offered in Fall Spring Summer, Natural Sciences
An introduction to the structure, processes, and reproduction of higher plants, including the diversity of the plant kingdom and principles of inheritance, ecology, and evolution. Credit cannot be given for both BO 200 and BO 250.


PB 205Our Green WorldUNITS: 3 - Offered in Summer, Natural Sciences
Awareness and understanding of plants in the world for the non-science student. Essential fundamental concepts of plant structure, growth, processes, uses, biotechnology, evolution, environmental issues and ecology. Short field trips will be held that may require students to provide their own transportation. Credit cannot be received for both PB 205 and (PB 200 or PB 250).


PB (AEE) (ANS) 208Agricultural Biotechnology: Issues and ImplicationsUNITS: 3 - Offered in Spring and Summer, Interdisciplinary Perspectives
Trends and issues of agricultural biotechnology in today's society are addressed while covering the basic biological science behind the technology. Applications of and policy issues associated with plant, animal, and environmental biotechnology used in the agricultural industry are examined from an interdisciplinary approach.


PB 213Plants and CivilizationUNITS: 3 - Offered in Spring Only, Natural Sciences
Prerequisite: BIO 125, BIO 105 or PB 200
Economic social, political, religious, and medical roles of plants and plant products in human civilization. Foods, beverages, drugs, fibers, oils, latexes, religious symbols and elements.


PB 215Medicinal PlantsUNITS: 3 - Offered in Fall Only
Prerequisite: CH 101 and any one of the following courses: BIO 125,BIO 181,PB 200,ZO 150,ZO 160
Plants and their derived pharmaceuticals in Western medicine and in herbal medicine.


PB 219Plants in Folklore, Myth, and religionUNITS: 3 - Offered in Fall Only, Interdisciplinary Perspectives
The structural and functional biology of plants and cultural inclusions in folklore, myth, and religion. The myth/religion-plant-human culture nexus. Mythical and religious themes covered, but not limited to, are: the world tree and cosmic order; plants and the creation of Earth; the unity of plants and divine entities; the tree of life; life-giving waters and human immortality; human descent from plants; origin of food plants from humans; plants of witchcraft and magic; psychoactive plants and access to deities; solidarity between humans and plants; death and resurrection of plants and humans.


PB 220Local FloraUNITS: 3 - Offered in Spring Only, Natural Sciences
Prerequisite: BIO 125 or PB 200
Structural terminology of vascular plants, field identification of plant species using popularized field guides, description of plant community types and their soil and topographic features.


PB 250Plant BiologyUNITS: 4 - Offered in Fall Only
An introduction for Life Science majors to the ecology, structure, function, processes, reproduction and evolution of higher plants. BIO 181 and BIO 183 or BIO 125 ; Students may not receive credit for both BO 200 and BO 250.


PB 277Space BiologyUNITS: 3 - Offered in Fall Only, Natural Sciences
Prerequisite: BIO 105 or BIO 140 or BIO 181 or BIO 183 or PB 200
Overview of the biology of plants, animals and humans in the space environment, including gravitational biology, aerospace medicine, search for extraterrestrial life, terraforming and life support.


PB 295Special Topics in BotanyUNITS: 1-4 - Offered in Fall Spring Summer
Trial offerings of new or experimental courses in Botany at the early undergraduate level.


PB 321Introduction to Whole Plant PhysiologyUNITS: 3 - Offered in Spring Only
Prerequisite: BIO 183 or PB 200 or PB 250; CH 101/102 and CH 220 or CH 221
Physiology of higher plants with emphasis on whole plant aspects including structure-function relationships, water and solute movement, energy sources and needs, plant growth and development, and the impact of plant physiology findings on agriculture. Students cannot receive credit for both PB 321 and PB 421.


PB (BIO) 330Evolutionary BiologyUNITS: 3 - Offered in Spring Only
Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 181and BIO 183
Principles and patterns of organic evolution. Topics will include the origin of life, patterns of genetic variation, adaptations, natural selection, and the formation of species, the relationship between micro and macroevolution, and the importance of evolution to humans and medicine.


PB (BIO) 360EcologyUNITS: 4 - Offered in Fall Spring Summer
Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 181
The science of ecology, including factors which control distribution and population dynamics of organisms, structure and function of biological communities, and energy flow and nutrient cycling in ecosystems; contrasts among the major biomes; and principles governing ecological responses to global climatic and other environmental changes.


PB 400Plant Structure and DiversityUNITS: 4 - Offered in Spring Only, Natural Sciences
Prerequisite: BIO 181 or PB 200 or PB 250
Survey of the structure and diversity of plants. Emphasis on anatomy, including cells, tissue systems, and organs, morphology, evolutionary trends, adaptive strategies, and bases for assumed phylogenetic relationships of fossil as well as living forms. Two one-day weekend field trips.


PB 403Systematic BotanyUNITS: 4 - Offered in Fall Only
Prerequisite: PB 200, PB 250, BIO 183, Junior standing
The course introduces basic and contemporary systematic principles and methods as applied to vascular plants, with emphasis on flowering plants. It covers classification, identification, phylogenetics, and molecular approaches, and surveys important and common plant families representing major groups of vascular plants.


PB 405Wetland FloraUNITS: 3 - Offered in Fall Only, Natural Sciences
Prerequisite: PB 200 or PB 250 or PB 403 or FOR 212
Plant morphological terminology and identifications of wetland plants; discussion of wetland flora, plant communities, functions and values of North Carolina wetland types; several one-day weekend field trips required.


PB 413Plant AnatomyUNITS: 2 - Offered in Spring Only
Prerequisite: PB 200 or PB 250 or PB 321 or PB 421
Organelles, cells, tissues and organs of flowering plants and selected gymnosperms. Emphasis placed on developmental patterns and structural adaptations for survival. Laboratory focuses on dissection, histochemistry, and imaging of plant cells and tissues. Students cannot reserve credit for both PB 413 and PB 513.


PB (BIO) 414Cell BiologyUNITS: 3 - Offered in Spring Only
Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 183 and CH 221
The chemical and physical bases of cellular structure and function with emphasis on methods and interpretations.


PB 421Plant PhysiologyUNITS: 3 - Offered in Fall Only
Prerequisite: BIO 183 or ZO 160, or PB 200 and CH 220 or CH 221
Physiology of higher plants with emphasis on biochemical, cell biological and molecular aspects of how plants function. Unique aspects of regulation of plant metabolism including photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen fixation, cell wall biosynthesis, growth and stress responses will be emphasized. The course is intended for students interested in postgraduate studies in plant biology. Students cannot receive credit for both PB 321 and PB 421.


PB 445PaleobotanyUNITS: 4
Prerequisite: BIO 181 or MEA 102
Morphologic, taxonomic, geologic and evolutionary relationships of fossil plants; emphasis on vascular plants; discussions of taphonomy, biogeography and palynology. Requires weekend field trips at student expense. Credit will not be allowed for both BO 445 and BO 545.


PB 464Rare Plants of North CarolinaUNITS: 3 - Offered in Fall Only
Prerequisite: One of the following: (PB 200, PB220, PB 403, or PB 405)
This course provides a taxonomic survey of the rare plants of North Carolina, focusing primarily on federally- and secondarily on state-listed species. Particular attention will be placed on: (1) the identification of rare species, their congeners, and morphologically similar species, (2) the biogeography of rare species, (3) optimum survey windows, and (4) the conservation biology of select taxa. Two Saturday field trips required. Junior level or higher. Students cannot receive credit for both PB 464 and PB 564.


PB (BIT) 476Applied BioinformaticsUNITS: 2 - Offered in Fall Only, Offered Alternate Even Years
Prerequisite: BIT 410 or BCH 454 or GN 311
The haploid human genome occupies a total of just over 3 billion DNA base pairs. This information is not contained in books, but stored in electronic databases. Computational biology utilizes infer function by comparative analysis. This course is designed for life scientists from all fields to introduce them to the power of bioinformatics and enable them to access and utilize biological information in databases for their own research.


PB 480Introduction to Plant BiotechnologyUNITS: 3 - Offered in Fall and Spring
Prerequisite: BCH 454 or BIT 410 or CS 211 or GN 311 or PB/BIO 414 or PB 421.
Introduction to gene cloning, plant tissue culture and transformation, and the development of agriculturally important transgenic traits. Critical thinking, case studies, and discussions are used to examine global approaches to the regulation and risks of genetically-modified organisms, plant and gene patents, and the consequences of these factors on food soverienty and trade. Students cannot receive credit for both PB 480 and PB 580.


PB (BIT) 481Plant Tissue Culture and TransformationUNITS: 2 - Offered in Spring Only
Prerequisite: BIT 360 or MB 409 or BCH 454 or ZO 480
Basic techniques in plant tissue culture and transformation. Empirical approaches to techniques in plant tissue culture, designing transgenes for expression in specific plant cell organelles and tissues, use of reporter genes to optimize transformation, and troubleshooting transformation. Laboratory sessions provide hands-on experience with plant tissue culture and transformation. Use of reporter genes, fluorescence microscopy and digital imaging. Half semester course, first part.


PB 492External Learning ExperienceUNITS: 1-6 - Offered in Fall Spring Summer
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing
A learning experience in agriculture and life sciences within an academic framework that utilizes facilities and resources which are external to the campus. Contact and arrangements with prospective employers must be initiated by student and approved by a faculty adviser, the prospective employer, the departmental teaching coordinator and the academic dean prior to the experience.


PB 493SP Problems in BOUNITS: 1-6 - Offered in Fall Spring Summer
A learning experience within an academic framework that utilizes campus facilities and resources. Contact and arrangements with prospective employers must be initiated by student and approved by a faculty adviser, the prospective employer, the departmental teaching coordinator and the academic dean prior to the experience.


PB 495Special Topics in BotanyUNITS: 1-6 - Offered in Fall Spring Summer
Prerequisite: 8 hrs. of Botany courses
Individualized study, under faculty supervision, of botanical topics in the student's area of interest and not covered in existing courses. Development of a new course on a trial basis.


PB (MB) (PP) 501Biology of Plant PathogensUNITS: 3 - Offered in Fall Only
Prerequisite: PP 315, or PP 318, or an introductory course in microbiology
Biology of microbes that cause plant diseases. The ecology, genetics, physiology, taxonomy, and mechanisms of parasitism, pathogenicity and virulence of bacteria (and other prokaryotes), fungi (and oomycetes), nematodes, and viruses that cause plant diseases. Prepares graduate students for advanced courses in plant pathology, host-parasite interactions, and provides a knowledge base for students in other disciplines involved with plant pathogens or who seek to broaden their knowledge of microbes.


PB 503Systematic BotanyUNITS: 4 - Offered in Fall Only
Prerequisite: PB 200, PB 250, BIO 183, Junior standing
The course introduces basic and contemporary systematic principles and methods as applied to vascular plants, with emphasis on flowering plants. It covers classification, identification, phylogenetics, and molecular approaches, and surveys important and common plant families representing major groups of vascular plants.


PB 513Plant AnatomyUNITS: 2 - Offered in Spring Only
Prerequisite: PB 200 or PB 250 or PB 321 or PB 421
Organelles, cells, tissues and organs of flowering plants and selected gymnosperms. Emphasis placed on developmental patterns and structural adaptations for survival. Laboratory focuses on dissection, histochemistry, and imaging of plant cells and tissues. Students cannot receive credit for both PB 413 and PB 513.


PB 545PaleobotanyUNITS: 4 - Offered in Spring Only, Offered Alternate Odd Years
Prerequisite: PB 400, 403, 413, 544, MEA 423
Morphologic, taxonomic, geologic and evolutionary relationships of fossil plants; emphasis on vascular plants; discussions of taphonomy, biogeography and palynology. Required field trips.


PB 564Rare Plants of North CarolinaUNITS: 3 - Offered in Fall Only
Prerequisite: One of the following: (PB 200, PB220, PB 403, or PB 405)
This course provides a taxonomic survey of the rare plants of North Carolina, focusing primarily on federally- and secondarily on state-listed species. Particular attention will be placed on: (1) the identification of rare species, their congeners, and morphologically similar species, (2) the biogeography of rare species, (3) optimum survey windows, and (4) the conservation biology of select taxa. Two Saturday field trips required. Junior level or higher. Students cannot receive credit for both PB 464 and PB 564.


PB 565Plant Community EcologyUNITS: 4 - Offered in Fall Only
Prerequisite: PB 360 or ZO 260
Consideration of structure and function of terrestrial vascular plant communities, with emphasis on both classical and recent research. Measurement and description of community properties, classification, ordination, vegetation pattern in relation to environment, ecological succession and a survey of vegetation of North America.


PB 570Plant Functional EcologyUNITS: 3 - Offered in Fall Only
Prerequisite: PB/BIO 360
Mechanisms by which plants interact with their environment, with an emphasis on the role of physiological, morphological, and life history traits, and the evolution of these traits.


PB (MB) (PP) 575Introduction to MycologyUNITS: 4 - Offered in Fall Only, Offered Alternate Even Years
A survey of the fungal kingdom in context of phyla and classes. Systematics, ecology, biology and utilization. Illustrative material, cultural techniques in laboratories. Collection and paper required.


PB 580Introduction to Plant BiotechnologyUNITS: 3 - Offered in Fall and Spring
Prerequisite: BCH 454 or BIT 410 or CS 211 or GN 311 or PB/BIO 414 or PB 421
Introduction to gene cloning, plant tissue culture and transformation, and the development of agriculturally important transgenic traits. Critical thinking, case studies, and discussions are used to examine global approaches to the regulation and risks of genetically modified organisms, plant and gene patents, and the consequences of these factors on food sovereignty and trade. Students cannot receive credit for both PB 480 and PB 580.


PB 595Special Topics BotanyUNITS: 1-4


PB 601Botany SeminarUNITS: 1 - Offered in Fall and Spring


PB 620Special Problems In BotanyUNITS: 1-4 - Offered in Fall Spring Summer
Directed research in some phase of botany other than a thesis problem, but designed to provide experience and training in research. Credits Arranged.


PB 624Topical ProblemsUNITS: 1-4 - Offered in Fall and Spring
Discussions and readings on problems of current interest in fields of ecology, anatomy and morphology, taxonomy, plant physiology and cell biology. May be repeated with a change in topic for a maximum of six credits.


PB 685Master's Supervised TeachingUNITS: 1-3 - Offered in Fall Spring Summer
Prerequisite: Master's student
Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.


PB 688Non-Thesis Masters Continuous Registration - Half Time RegistrationUNITS: 1 - Offered in Fall Spring Summer
Prerequisite: Master's Student
For students in non-thesis master's programs who have completed all credit hour requirements for their degree but need to maintain half-time continuous registration to complete incomplete grades, projects, final master's exam, etc.


PB 689Non-Thesis Master Continuous Registration - Full Time RegistrationUNITS: 3 - Offered in Fall Spring Summer
Prerequisite: Master's Student
For students in non-thesis master's programs who have completed all credit hour requirements for their degree but need to maintain full-time continuous registration to complete incomplete grades, projects, final master's exam, etc. Students may register for this course a maximum of one semester.


PB 690Master's ExaminationUNITS: 1-6 - Offered in Fall Spring Summer
Prerequisite: Master's Student
For students in non-thesis master's programs who have completed all other requirements of the degree except preparing for and taking the final master's exam.


PB 693Master's Supervised ResearchUNITS: 1-9 - Offered in Fall Spring Summer
Prerequisite: Master's Student
Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.


PB 695Master's Thesis ResearchUNITS: 1-9 - Offered in Fall Spring Summer
Prerequisite: Master's Student
Thesis Research.


PB 696Summer Thesis ResearchUNITS: 1 - Offered in Summer
Prerequisite: Master's Student
For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.


PB 699Master's Thesis PreparationUNITS: 1-3 - Offered in Fall Spring Summer
Prerequisite: Master's Student
For students who have completed all credit hour requirements and full-time enrollment for the master's degree and are writing and defending their thesis.


PB 704Plant NomenclatureUNITS: 1 - Offered in Spring Only
A practical foundation in plant nomenclature and nomenclatural references. Emphasis on the evolution of international rules for naming plant taxa and their application in both wild and cultivated plants. Nomenclature applications used in patents, cultivar releases and journal articles. Taught mid-semester. Taught five weeks of semester.


PB (GN) (MB) (PP) 730Fungal Genetics and PhysiologyUNITS: 3 - Offered in Spring Only, Offered Alternate Years
Prerequisite: BCH 451, PB 575, GN 411 or PP 501
Basic concepts of genetics and physiology of fungi, with emphasis on saprophytic and plant pathogenic mycelial fungi. Current literature on evolution, cell structure, growth and development, gene expression, metabolism, sexual and asexual reproduction and incompatibility systems. Laboratory exercises on mutant isolation, sexual and parasexual analysis, genetic transformation, and RFLP and isozyme analysis.


PB 733Plant Growth and DevelopmentUNITS: 3 - Offered in Spring Only
Prerequisite: PB(ZO) 414 or PB 421, organic chemistry
Advanced course in plant physiology covering plant growth, development, differentiation, senescence and biological control mechanisms.


PB 751Advanced Plant Physiology IUNITS: 3 - Offered in Fall Only
Prerequisite: PB 421
Cellular mechanisms and regulatory features related to plant respiration, photosynthesis, sulfur metabolism, nitrogen fixation and metabolism, and signal transduction. One of two courses covering field of plant physiology.


PB (MB) 774PhycologyUNITS: 3 - Offered in Spring Only, Offered Alternate Odd Years
Prerequisite: BIO 125 or PB 200
Introduction to taxonomy, morphology, reproduction and ecological importance of organisms which may be included in the algae. Attention to local freshwater flow and physiology of selected species in relation to algal blooms, water quality and nutrient loading in aquatic habitats.


PB 780Plant Molecular BiologyUNITS: 3 - Offered in Fall Only
Prerequisite: BCH 451, GN 411
Molecular analysis of plant growth and development. Molecular techniques and their application to understanding control of gene expression in plants.


PB 795Special Topics BotanyUNITS: 1-4 - Offered in Fall and Spring


PB 801SeminarUNITS: 1 - Offered in Fall and Spring


PB 820Special ProblemsUNITS: 1-4 - Offered in Fall Spring Summer
Directed research in some phase of botany other than a thesis problem, but designed to provide experience and training in research. Credits Arranged.


PB 824Topical ProblemsUNITS: 1-4 - Offered in Fall and Spring
Discussions and readings on problems of current interest in fields of ecology, anatomy and morphology, taxonomy, plant physiology and cell biology. May be repeated with a change in topic for a maximum of six credits.


PB 885Doctoral Supervised TeachingUNITS: 1-3 - Offered in Fall Spring Summer
Prerequisite: Doctoral Student
Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.


PB 890Doctoral Preliminary ExaminationUNITS: 1-9 - Offered in Fall Spring Summer
Prerequisite: Doctoral Student
For students who are preparing for and taking written and/or oral preliminary exams.


PB 893Doctoral Supervised ResearchUNITS: 1-9 - Offered in Fall Spring Summer
Prerequisite: Doctoral student
Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.


PB 895Doctoral Dissertation ResearchUNITS: 1-9 - Offered in Fall Spring Summer
Prerequisite: Doctoral student
Dissertation Research


PB 896Summer Dissertation ResearchUNITS: 1 - Offered in Summer
Prerequisite: Doctoral Student
For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.


PB 899Doctoral Dissertation PreparationUNITS: 1-3 - Offered in Fall Spring Summer
Prerequisite: Doctoral Student
For students who have completed all credit hours, full-time enrollment, preliminary examination, and residency requirements for the doctoral degree, and are writing and defending their dissertations.